The "Three-C's " of Each Yana and Their Interconnections

Within the Whole System of Buddhism: Part I

Yogi C. M. Chen

Before we begin the discussion, I must explain that the term "Three-C's" was first used by me in my book Buddhist Meditation Systematic and Practical. The first "C" is the cause or seed. The second "C" is the course or practice (the path). And the third "C" is the consequence or result. They are analogous to the seed, the flower, and the fruit.

First I will give a general idea of the causal position or the seed. Here we have the very interesting question of Who is the Master of the Practitioner? What is the motive which pushed you to begin practice and what is the real seed of Buddhahood? All three questions have the same answer. I have written an essay entitled, "The Practitioner's Motivation," because there are many people who have not thoroughly understood their motivation for undertaking Dharma practice. Most are even quite foolish. They mistakenly take the "I" or ego as Master of their practice. Such people are not able to get the Dharma fruit, no matter how diligently they persevere.

The fundamental motive can never be the "I." In Buddhism, the "I" should be destroyed. It is the eighth consciousness, which has been elevated to this position by the deluded clinging of the seventh-consciousness. Both the seventh and eighth- consciousness are traps within transmigration. One can rightly accuse them of being the Masters of Transmigration but definitely not the Masters of Full-Enlightenment. Especially for Buddhists, the "I" must be destroyed by the Buddhist Dharma, by meditation, and by the Wisdom of Sunyata. But most persons, even including scholars, Rimpoches, and tulkus have not yet gotten rid of the "I." Even these reputed experts mistake it for the initial motive of practice. It is quite a fundamental error, so do not mistake the "I" to be the seed of practice in any of the three vehicles of Buddhism.

This mistake in the consciousness belongs to the category of basic ignorance tormenting all sentient beings. It is sometimes called one branch of 12-fold causation. The first mistake thus is ignorance, clinging to the belief of a subjective experiencer and objective world, and the related second mistake is inner action. This inner action is not the common motions of feet or hands, but is the activity of the thought process. This means the thinking and conceptualizing mentality. So because of this ignorance, the further eleven causations form the entire transmigration. None of the 12-fold causations can be the motive for study of the Dharma since they all have their roots in basic ignorance.

The third mistake is the Sunyata. Scholars like to say that we are non-ego, thus they conclude that the motive of practice is the Sunyata. But they are just talkers and have no actual experience. They mistake the fruit for the seed. But Sunyata, by its very nature, can never be the seed or motive. By trying to plant Sunyata as the seed of practice, the majority of scholars have cut themselves off from the living Buddha-dharma. Please remember that Sunyata is the consequence and can never be fully experienced without extensive meditation practice. In living Buddhism, Sunyata is never regarded as the first motive, or as Master of the practitioner.

Well, could it be that the Master of the practitioner is the mind? Since everything comes from the mind, and the mind is the Chief, then if we are mindful, we can practice the Dharma. This is reasonable and true, but mindfulness still needs somebody to practice it. Mind has several meanings. Physically it is the heart, psychically it is the mind. Others say it is the consciousness. Mind is really not so definite and precise, it cannot be regarded as the initial motive of practice. So we have not yet reached the beginning point. One can rise or fall by the mind, so what is the underlying motive which guides mind to pursue the mindfulness practice?

There is the ninth consciousness or Tathagata Womb Consciousness which represents that all sentient beings innately possess Buddha-Nature. This Buddha-Nature must be developed into Full Enlightenment, then Buddhahood can be realized. Otherwise, it just remains dormant or undiscovered. But our Tathagata Womb Consciousness is not the underlying motive of the practitioner, for one still must have a motive to discover his potentiality of Buddhahood.

Next, one might think that the Bodhicitta is the motive of the practitioner. The Vairocana Tantra says, "Bodhicitta is the seed, the Great Compassion is the root, and Skillful Means is the ultimate result." But who practices the Bodhicitta? The Bodhicitta cannot practice itself. There must be some master or beginning point behind the Bodhicitta. To develop the Bodhicitta is a practice. To know that the Bodhicitta is the seed of Full Enlightenment is very important. But who is it that recognizes this fact? And who is it that guides the practice of Bodhicitta? So we can see that the Bodhicitta is not the primary master.

Some mistake the Great Compassion for the initial motive. They say that the Buddha has Great Compassion and good mind. So one must do likewise and then can get Buddhahood. But actually the Great Compassion is a Consequence, and cannot be regarded as a Cause. We must still look for the seed that would cause one to develop the Great Compassion.

If all the above things have failed to meet the requirements to be the first Cause, motive or master of the practitioner, what is left?

The Right View is the cause. The Right View is the master of the practitioner, the initial motive of the practitioner, and the first seed of the practitioner. Why?

Previously we said that "I" was not the cause because it must be destroyed. But then why should the cause be the Right View? It is because the Right View is not produced by the "I," but rather is produced from the Dharma, what you have heard of the Buddha's teachings.Right View comes from the Buddha's wisdom, from Buddha's Full Enlightenment. You learn the Right View from Buddha's philosophy and this certainly is not the "I."

The "I" is the subject of ignorance and the ignorancesystem is based on the "I." Transmigration is the transmigration of the "I." So when we have the Right View we can recognize that the "I" is the master of transmigration, whereas the Right View is the master of the practitioner.

The practitioner learns the Right View by hearing, reading and thinking about the Buddhist teachings. This is called the Buddhist Right View. It is different from the ignorance system. It is not human thought, nor heavenly thought, nor Divine Revelation from God, nor a source from the Bible, nor from the Bhagavad Gita. Rather it is a source from the fully awakened Mind of Buddha which sees things as they really are. It is the subject which destroys the object which is the "I." The "I" becomes the object destroyed by the Right View. Our Right View is the real master which can destroy the system of ignorance.

Sunyata is not the first cause, but the person who has the Right View knows about the Sunyata quite well. The Right View must include the theoretical basis of Sunyata but this must not be mistaken for the actual realization. The Right View firmly guides one to practice the Sunyata. One sees that Buddhist philosophy lays most stress on Sunyata and practices it thoroughly to get the true realization. This is the Right View which is quite different from the premature Sunyata preached by those aforementioned scholars.

Consciousness is not the master of the practitioner. The Right View comes from the tradition of Buddhism, not from human consciousness. To produce Buddha's Wisdom, many, many methods and stages are given. The Buddha taught how to transmute all eight consciousnesses into the five wisdoms of Buddhahood. The first five consciousnesses are transformed into the Wisdom of Achievement. The sixth consciousness is transformed into the Wisdom of Discrimination. The seventh consciousness is transformed into the Wisdom of Equality. The eighth consciousness is transformed into the Great Mirror Wisdom. Finally the ninth consciousness (Tathagata-womb consciousness) is transformed into the Wisdom of Buddhahood (Wisdom of Totality).

The Right View guides one to transform all the consciousnesses into Wisdom, but it is not itself consciousness. By studying the Dharma one gets some theoretical wisdom. Along with all the principles of Buddhism this knowledge produces the Right View. The Right View is just like a little outline of Wisdom and is so important. From the study of the entire system of Buddhism, the Right View is produced, and it then guides one's actions to transform consciousness into Buddha's wisdom. The Right View is like a catalyst without which the transformation cannot take place.

Again, the mind is not the first cause. The Right View distinguishes what kind of mind is adequate for practice. It recognizes the mind of mindfulness, the disturbed mind, etc. If you have the Right View then you can say, "Oh, this is the disturbed mind," "This is the mind of Truth," or "This is the seventh consciousness which holds the eighth consciousness." The mind is very complex. Without the Right View one cannot distinguish if the mind is the physical heart or the psychological thoughts, or if the mind is just equal to the Truth or to the Tathagata or to wisdom. Thus the Right View is essential for diagnosing the condition of the mind, and for guiding it towards liberation. Without the Right View, the mind is like an airplane without a pilot. So impress upon your mind that Right View is the essential ingredient in our practice of the Buddha Dharma.

Within the Right View one recognizes that the Tathagatawomb is the innate characteristic of all sentient beings. By using his Right View the practitioner is able to search out and discover the Tathagata-womb but the Tathagata-womb is like the "eye" which cannot see itself. Therefore it is helpless without the "vision" of Right View.

Likewise, as mind is not the motive of practice, the Bodhicitta is not either. The Right View drives one to become a Bodhisattva by practicing the Bodhicitta. Without light View there would be no impetus to develop the Bodhicitta. Bodhicitta is like a blind man who cannot find his way without the "guide dog" of Right View.

As for the Great Compassion, it cannot be the first motive to practice because it belongs to the position of Consequence. However, the Right View does recognize that one who becomes Buddha has to practice the Great Compassion. Great Compassion is guided by the Right View, but not vice-versa. Because one has read many biographies of the Bodhisattvas and found many good examples of the Great Compassion, he knows if he has Right View that he must also develop it.

One should recognize that the Right View is the seed of all seeds, and is the fundamental ingredient in cultivating Buddhahood. Each yana, Hinayana, Mahayana, and Vajrayana has its own particular Right View. The Right View is divided into two parts. First is the Right View of Causation or of Cosmos. There are four kinds of Causation, one for the Hinayana, two for the Mahayana, and a fourth for the Vajrayana. They will be explained below. One must learn how the world was formed, how to change it, and how it can eventually become the Buddha's Mandala. The second part is the Right View of Life Value. From this we learn of the value of life and see how we should spend it all practicing Buddhism.

Now that we have talked about the cause of all causation, we will next talk about the general ideas of each of the three"C's".

Buddha taught three aspects of knowledge. The first is obtained through hearing, which includes reading, because to read the Sutras is just like hearing the words of the Buddha. The second is obtained through thinking. This means reflecting on what has been read or heard. The third is obtained through practicing what we have learned. Among these three, the first two belong to the Causal position, while the third or practice belongs to the Course or Path. These three types of knowledge also prove that the Right View is the master of the practitioner.

Buddha taught the Eight Conditions for the Full Enlightenment, the Arya-Marga. First is the Right View (Samyak Drsti) which is the Right View with regard to the four noble truths and freedom from the common thoughts of delusion. Second is Right Thoughts (Samyak-Samkalpa). The third is Right Speech (Samyak-Vac). This means to avoid all false and idle talk. From the Right View one develops the right philosophy or central thought. From the central thought you think of things relating to Dharma. This is Right Thinking. From Right Thinking one is able to develop Right Speech and talk about Right Dharma.

Fourth is Right Karma (Samyak-Karmanta), correct conduct or deeds, getting rid of all improper actions. When you keep the Right View, all your Karmas will be without impurity.

The fifth is Right livelihood (Samyak-ajiva). One avoids the five immoral occupations. One would not be a killer of animals, a gambler, a soldier, or a drug peddler or a communist, who rejects and destroys every religion.

The sixth is called Right Diligence (samyak-Vyayama). One's energy should be directed towards the attainment of Nirvana. Many people waste vast amounts of energy earning money or a reputation for themselves. But when your effort is accompanied by Right View, such things are of secondary importance.

The seventh is Right Memory (Samyak-Smrti). It includes the true and eliminates the false.

The eighth is Right Samadhi (Samyak-Samadhi). This is correct meditation where all absorption is under the guidance of Right View. One must never think that absorption itself is a good thing. It must be properly oriented.

The Tantra gives four steps. The first is Right View; the second is Practice or Training; the third is Conduct or Deeds; the fourth is Result. The third of conduct corresponds to the course and the result corresponds to the consequence position. Of these four, Right View comes first. This gives further proof of the correctness of choosing the Right View as the seed of all causes within the "Three-C'x".

In Confucianism they have Five Steps. Confucius said sincerity is the way of the Tao. Study it wisely, inquire into it searchingly, reflect upon it carefully, discriminate about it accurately, and practice it wisely. Among these five, the first four belong to the Causal position and all of them form the Right View. The last belongs to the position of Course.

Generally, a person follows his habitual Karmic patterns. Whatever has been accumulated in his eighth consciousness is reflected in his present behavior. Therefore, a gentlemanly person has sown many gentlemanly seeds in the past, while a cruel person has sown many cruel seeds. One is born in a certain time, place, and family which are compatible with his habitual Karma. The habitual Karmic patterns are very difficult to change by social education, school education, or family education. They mostly reinforce habitual Karma rather than unwind it.

Astrologers can quite accurately predict the course of events in one's life since few people aspire to destroy the habitual Karmic activity. But Buddhism does not cater to fatalism. It emphasizes that one can put an end to all the confusion, thus becoming Buddha in this lifetime. But one must follow some teaching from outside his habitual consciousness. If the motive comes from his own Karmically conditioned consciousness certainly he will not gain liberation. The teaching that comes from "outside" the habitual consciousness is the Right View. So be discriminating, do not merely follow your habitual patterns as a guide. Develop the Right View. There is less time than you think.

Buddha discovered the Right View and left many teachings for us, so why not study them thoroughly? This philosophy which you create by studying the texts of Hinayana, Mahayana, and Vajrayana, and by associating with good teachers is "outside" your habitual Karma. It is indispensable for all Buddhist practitioners. It cannot be emphasized enough that the Right View is the essential motive of practice.

1. The Three-C of Each Yana

Each yana has its own Right View. This does not mean that there are three separate Right Views. But one which becomes more mature as the practitioner progresses through the three yanas. It is like going from High School to College to Graduate School. If the Hinayana was the complete Right View then there would be no need for the Mahayana and Tantra. Now I would like to discuss the three "C" of each yana.

1. Hinayana

A. The Cause of the Hinayana

For the first "C" of Elinayana one must know what the Sutras say, especially the doctrine of the Four Noble Truths. These Four Noble Truths are the Right View of the Hinayana. They are Buddha personal teachings.

There are also the Four Agamas. The Agamas are collections of the four divisions of Hinayana Scripture. The first Agama is called Dirghagama. It is cosmological and consists of long treatises as to how the world came to be formed. The second is called the Madhyamagama. It contains metaphysical treatises. The third, the Samyuktagama is a collection of miscellaneous treatises. Lastly, there is the Ekottarikagama. It contains descriptions of several types of subjects. Buddha first taught the Hinayana in the Deer Garden. This is called Early Buddhism, the source of Buddhism for the Hinayana. The Buddha also gave personal instructions in the form of four line stanzas (Gathas). After the Parinirvana, they were collected by his disciples in a text called the Dharmapada (Dhammapada). However, the text is not arranged according to the practical sequence but rather according to literary consideration. I have arranged it into a practical sequence as follows: 1. Impermanence 2. Renunciation 3. Vinaya (commandments) 4. Bodhicitta 5. The Great Compassion 6. Concentration Meditation 7. Wisdom 8. Buddhahood. I feel that this is a little better than the old classification because it lays more stress on the practice. It has been published in the form of two small booklets. (Chenian Booklets New Nos. 64 and 65.)

The Fundamental idea of the Hinayana follows the Four Noble Truths. The first is pain, the second is the cause of pain, the third tells the possibility of the end of pain, and the fourth tells the way thereto. Reading all of these you might have the Right View of Hinayana. Hinayana Right View has nothing to do with whether you wear a Yellow Robe or you come from Ceylon, as some people think, nor does it have to do with a shaved head, or begging food or bare feet. When one is aware of the pain of Transmigration there is the Right View to practice Hinayana.

It is very sad that most American Buddhists are not aware of the pain of Transmigration. America is just like a small heaven. Everything is easy, everything is comfortable, life is easy, people have plenty to eat. When they die they are laid to rest in some large and beautiful cemetery. Most Americans have never even seen a corpse. Under such luxurious conditions it is very difficult for them to see that this dream life is impermanent and painful. Without deeply feeling the impermanence of life one is apt to fritter away this time. This is certainly the case for most Americans who utilize their free time only for more and more clever and varied entertainments, until most are so bored with these cheap pastimes that they are not even aware of impermanence. But Yama, the God of Death, makes no exceptions and very soon you and your entire family and everything you thought was reality will be gone. I hope that you have lived your life fully and meaningfully, but unless you grasp the impermanence of this life, you are only cheating yourself.

No matter how many fine comforts you give to your loved ones, it does them no good. You are only creating more pain and delusions for them, It is like pouring salt into an open wound. They have enough of these false comforts. So if you really love your family, give them what they need. Set an example for them by learning the Right View, and then practicing the Dharma.

When a person passes the limit of physical pain, he loses consciousness and is no longer aware of the pain until he reawakens. Americans have no physical pain, but I am sorry to say that their spiritual pain is so intense that most are unconscious of the fact. Most Americans have no intense desire to practice. They just want to remove a little tension from their body-mind so that they feel more relaxed and have good health. Their realization is only superficial to the extent that some regard the supernatural powers of the sages, for example Padmasambhava transmuting his entire flesh body into light, as mere fantasy or mythology. But when the tension is gone they immediately return to the same place to get more tension again.

So do whatever you can to reawaken yourself and others to the fundamental impermanence of existence. If you really want to lead a full life you must realize Full Enlightenment.

Buddha chose India as the place to propagate the Dharma because the people there are aware of the pain and impermanence of life. Usually in India people are very lazy. As soon as a man earns enough money to eat for the day, he may stop working. Since everything is impermanent, he would rather have more free time than more money. That was why Buddha also taught diligence.

To propagate the Dharma in America one must first emphasize the pain of transmigration and then the students will create time for themselves to practice the Dharma. Then they can get the real Bliss Void, instead of the temporary pleasure of drinking wine and of sexual intercourse. This is the cause of the Hinayana by which one gets the motivation to practice. By reading the Four Agamas one can learn how the Universe was formed, how private Karma is suffered, and what is the cause of birth in the six realms. This will produce the Right View of impermanence and all activity of nonsense will be eliminated from our lives.

B. The Course of the Hinayana

The course of Hinayana can be learned from Buddha own example. It is written in his biographies. Most practices are summarized under the term of the Thirty-Seven Bodhis.

To grow up, a Bodhi Tree must have many roots, leaves, branches and fruits. The course of the Bodhi has been explained in terms of thirty-seven factors. We have already talked about the Eight Branches of the Right Path. Here we may mention the rest of the thirty-seven.

Of these thirty-seven factors (Bodhipaksika-dharma) there are first the Four Stages of Memory or Subjective Reflection (Smrityupasthana), then the Four Proper Lines of Exertion (Samyakprahana), the Four Steps towards Supernatural Powers (Siddhipada), the Five Spiritual Faculties (Pancaindryani), the Five Powers (Panca-balani), the Seven Degrees of Enlightenment (Sapta-bodhyanga) or diligence, and the Eight-fold Right Path (Asta-Marga) which has already been explained.

Altogether they add up to thirty-seven and all are necessary. They all belong to the Course of Hinayana and we have to practice each of them. They were taught personally by the Buddha during his lifetime and it is said that five hundred disciples became Arhats.

There are two kinds of Buddhas. In a world there is only one completely perfect Buddha. At the very beginning everything is very difficult so there must be a perfect Buddha to teach the Hinayana. Such a Buddha has not only practiced and achieved the personal attainment of Buddhahood, but also has enough merit to connect with the six kinds of sentient beings and cause them to have faith in him. He is also so perfect that he can personally find and give out all the doctrine correctly.

Another kind of Buddha is one who at any time personally follows all the doctrine of Hinayana, Mahayana, and Vajrayana and can get Full Enlightenment for himself and for some others. Such a Buddha is His Holiness the Karmapa, who accomplished the Full Enlightenment through Tantric practice of Sambara. His crown was made from the hairs of one hundred thousand Dakinis, one hair from each. Although he himself has attained Buddhahood, he could not yet lead a whole period of sentient beings to practice through the Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana. This is called Buddhahood of private consequence. (It is not the same as Pratyeka-Buddhahood which pertains to Hinayana only.)

Those practicing the thirty-seven Bodhis need to be led by a Perfect Buddha such as Gautama himself. Through his guidance a good foundation may be established on which the practice of the Mahayana and Vajrayana may be based. This concludes the explanation of the course of practice of the Hinayana. There is not enough time now to explain each Bodhi in detail.

C. The Consequence of the Hinayana

Next is described the third "C" of the Hinayana, the Consequence of Arhatship. There are four degrees. The first is the Srottapanna. He is just entering the stream of the Dharma and has already left the state of a human being. Through the practice of renunciation he has freed himself from the complex delusions of the three realms of haveness. But this is only a beginning, it is not yet the highest stage.

The second degree is that of the Sakridagamin which means once-more-to-come. One who attains this Consequence has cut off all the gross or rough delusions of the self, but there still remains subtle delusions which force him to return once more to the habit of desire, the human state. Therefore it is called the stage of once-more-to-come.

The third degree is the Anagamin, or one who will never return. Because he has cut off all the delusions of self he will not come again, but still must be reborn in a heaven of form or of non-form.

Fourth, the highest degree is the Arhat. Arhat means "one who has killed all the thieves." That is, the inner thieves or foes. All inner thoughts or delusions have been killed. When he has killed all these inner thieves, he is worthy of heaven's and men's offerings, which is another meaning of Arhat. The Arhat enters into his own Hinayana Nirvana. This is called non-born.

These four degrees of Arhat are the result of consequence of the thirty-seven Bodhis. The Arhat has cut off the painful transmigration but has not great Bodhicitta to save others, and so remains in that Hinayana Nirvana. He must be saved by the Buddha himself calling his name and awakening him by saying, "This kind of Mrvana is not complete. Even though you can abide there for an endless time, it is not the real Buddhahood. So you must develop the Bodhicitta and learn the Mahayana."

But if you learn Hinayana in Ceylon and never hear about the Mahayana, or if you have some false view that the Mahayana may not be the Buddha's teachings, then the highest Consequence you can get is just these four degrees of Arhat. So in order to practice the whole system of Buddhism, do not take these four degrees as the final Consequence. This will be further explained below in the talk on the whole system of the three  "C's".

When Buddha Gautama began to establish Buddhism, he knew that each person had to lay the foundation of Hinayana. Those who practice Hinayana follow the Buddha's personal teachings. They purify themselves and destroy their personal ego. To get rid of all the sorrows they have to practice renunciation and meditation on the Sunyata of personality. At that early time, Buddha laid most stress on this self-development through purification and defeating the sorrows by meditating on the non-ego of personality.

But that does not mean that Buddha stopped there. As mentioned earlier above, I classified the Dharmapada, the personal teaching of Buddha, into eight parts. Among these are two steps of Bodhicitta and Great Compassion. These two belong to the Mahayana. I could not find even a few stanzas about Great Compassion (and Bodhicitta) in the Dharmapada, so I had to select them from another Buddhist Sutra that is not part of the Dharmapada. From this we can see that Buddha laid most stress on each of his disciples becoming purified through the Hinayana doctrine. In order to develop great Bodhicitta and save others one must first purify one own self.

Buddha taught some of his doctrine by means of his own personality of Nirmanakaya. He also appeared as the great Sambara, the Vajra Heruka, to show the Yidam of Tantra and to impart the Tantric doctrine to a certain few persons such as the Emperor, named Anzar-bodhi. During his whole lifetime he only imparted the Tantra to this one person. On the other hand he foretold that some Bodhisattvas would talk more deeply and explain the more profound doctrines. So he did not teach more Mahayana himself, but rather foretold that the great Bodhisattva Nagarjuna would teach it and that Padmasambhava and the great Lama Gampopa would teach the Tantra.

Development does not mean that everything must be taught by Buddha himself, since Buddha is not a human pudgala. Pudgala is a Sanskrit term and means a certain person or personality. Buddha has three kayas, the Nirmanakaya, the Sambhogakaya, and the Dharmakaya. Dharmakaya means that even a stone can teach you. A spider can teach patience. A bee can teach you diligence. An ant can teach you boldness. Even grass can teach you. All these kinds of teachings belong to the Dharmakaya. Many inspired Ch'an monks have comprehended through such teachings. When one saw his own reflection in water he comprehended. When one saw the peach flower he comprehended. When one heard some sound from a rock hitting a bamboo he comprehended. These are examples of the Dharmakaya teaching.

Nagarjuna is an old Buddha, even before Buddha Gautama. He was born in this world and taught many Mahayana Sutras. Some from his own remembrance, others he got from the Dragon Palace. These Sutras were personally taught by Buddha in the Dragon Palace.

According to scientific investigation which looks only at documents, the Mahayana was not taught by Buddha. Most of the Hinayana Scriptures are in the Pali language, and Buddhaheaven's original language was Pali. Most of the Hinayana Tripitaka has been translated by the Pali Text Society of London. The Mahayana Sutras are mostly in Sanskrit and the Tantra is also in Sanskrit. This has caused some followers of the Hinayana to say that the Mahayana is not the Buddha's teaching. This is quite a mistake. Why did Buddha teach Hinayana so much more than Mahayana during his lifetime? Because he saw that most of the believers at that time were Hinayana instruments. They were not able to understand the Mahayana doctrine.

When he was preaching the Dharma Flower Sutra, Buddha wanted to explain how even in evil things the Sunyata nature can be found. Five hundred Arhats foreknew this and left their seats saying, "Now Buddha is going to talk about evil things." Actually, Buddha wanted to talk about the Mahayana.

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